Give details of possible risks of harm to participants.
(a) What are the possible risks—physical, psychological, legal, social?
(b) If there are any risks, why are they necessary? Is there any other way to conduct the research that would reduce the risk to subjects, and, if so, why have you not chosen that alternative?
(c) What steps will be taken to minimize the risk? (If the research may involve greater than minimal risk to participants, describe provisions for ensuring participant safety.)
(d) Should a subject be injured or otherwise harmed, or experience significant distress, what are your plans for addressing the problem? (e.g., referral for evaluation or treatment if there are significant psychological risks)
(e) If risks are anticipated to be no more than minimal, please state so here and in the consent form, if used.